In addition, spatially-trained rats exhibited greater co-expression of immediate early genes in new neurons in response to spatial memory retrieval compared to cue-trained rats, suggesting that regardless of sex, spatial training elicited greater activation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus.
Home About Medicographia Past issues Contact. Psychol Med. Sex-related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala function in emotionally influenced memory: an FMRI investigation. In the United States and Canada, it is not required that every proposal include both males and females, but the exclusion of one sex must be scientifically justified in each application Clayton, Ageing Res Rev.
To address the issues in psychology sex differences in the brain in Toronto understanding of mechanisms subserving the influence of sex on epidemiology of concussive sport and work-related injury and injury outcomes i.
In experimental models of acute ischemic stroke, minocycline shows neuroprotective effects and improved behavioral outcomes in young adult males Yrjanheikki et al. However, unlike in females, estradiol infusion does not increase ERK phosphorylation in males Koss and Frick,nor does inhibiting ERK phosphorylation prevent estradiol from enhancing memory consolidation in males, suggesting that estradiol may trigger different cell-signaling pathways to enhance memory in males and females Table 1.
As a consequence, females are underrepresented in laboratory investigations of aggressive behavior issues in psychology sex differences in the brain in Toronto typically focus on overt aggression reviewed in Ervin et al. Premenstrual syndrome. Targeting nitric oxide in the subacute restorative treatment of ischemic stroke.
Synder RL. Although GPER activation in ovariectomized mice robustly enhances memory consolidation in the object recognition and object placement tasks, ERK phosphorylation is not required Kim et al. Delayed minocycline inhibits ischemia-activated matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 after experimental stroke.
Preclinical studies show that reducing nNOS via targeted deletion or by pharmacological inhibitors reduces ischemia-induced cell death Yoshida et al. Berretti et al. Sex differences in stroke outcome are also well recognized in preclinical models summarized in Table 3.
Such differences in sex-specific rates were attributed to higher incidences of general injury among younger males, a variance between males and females in traditional societal roles and activities, as well as risk-taking behaviors [ 11 , 12 ], highlighting a gendered side of this epidemiology trend in TBI.
Wester S. A In females, the left, but not the right, amygdala shows strong resting-state connectivity to a widespread network of ventral prefrontal, temporal, and parahippocampal regions. Thus, post-training treatment with either hormone appears capable of enhancing memory formation, whether given alone or in combination.
Changing roles and sleep deprivation may be strong drivers for mood shifts.